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Full Wave Rectifier Class 12 Physics Practical Project | PDF | Diode | Transformer


Rectifier Project Class 12 PDF Download




If you are a student of class 12 and you are looking for a physics project that is easy to make, interesting to learn, and useful to understand, then you might want to consider making a rectifier project. A rectifier is an electronic device that converts alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC), which is essential for many applications. In this article, we will explain what a rectifier is, how it works, how to make a full wave rectifier project for class 12, and where to find and download PDF files of rectifier projects.




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What is a Rectifier and Why Do You Need It?




A rectifier is an electronic device that converts alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). AC is the type of current that comes from the mains supply or a generator, which changes its direction and magnitude periodically. DC is the type of current that comes from a battery or a solar cell, which flows in one direction and has a constant magnitude. Most electronic devices, such as TVs, radios, chargers, and LEDs, require DC for their operation. Therefore, we need rectifiers to convert AC into DC for these devices.


Definition and Function of a Rectifier




A rectifier is an electronic device that uses one or more diodes to allow current to flow in one direction only. A diode is a semiconductor device that has two terminals, called anode and cathode. When the anode is connected to a positive voltage and the cathode is connected to a negative voltage, the diode allows current to flow from the anode to the cathode. This is called forward bias condition. When the anode is connected to a negative voltage and the cathode is connected to a positive voltage, the diode blocks current from flowing from the anode to the cathode. This is called reverse bias condition. By using diodes in different configurations, we can achieve different types of rectification.


Types of Rectifiers and Their Applications




There are two main types of rectifiers: half wave rectifiers and full wave rectifiers. A half wave rectifier uses one diode to convert only one half cycle of the AC into DC. The other half cycle is blocked by the diode. A full wave rectifier uses two or four diodes to convert both half cycles of the AC into DC. The output of a full wave rectifier has less ripple than that of a half wave rectifier. Ripple is the variation in the output voltage due to the incomplete conversion of AC into DC. A lower ripple means a smoother and more stable output voltage.


Half wave rectifiers are used for applications that do not require high power or smooth output voltage, such as mosquito repellents, signal peak detectors, and battery chargers. Full wave rectifiers are used for applications that require high power or smooth output voltage, such as electric welding, power supplies, and modulation.


How to Make a Full Wave Rectifier Project for Class 12?




If you want to make a full wave rectifier project for class 12, you will need some materials and components, a circuit diagram, and some instructions on how to assemble and test your project. Here are the steps you need to follow:


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Aim and Objective of the Project




The aim of this project is to construct a full wave rectifier using four diodes and show that it converts AC into DC. The objective of this project is to understand the working principle of a full wave rectifier Materials and Components Required for the Project




To make a full wave rectifier project for class 12, you will need the following materials and components:


  • A transformer with a primary voltage of 220 V and a secondary voltage of 12 V.



  • Four diodes of type 1N4007 or equivalent.



  • A resistor of 1 kΩ.



  • A capacitor of 1000 µF.



  • A voltmeter and an ammeter.



  • A breadboard and some connecting wires.



Circuit Diagram and Working Principle of the Project




The circuit diagram of a full wave rectifier project for class 12 is shown below:



+----+ +----+ +----+ +----+ ----+ +----+------+-------+----+----+ ++ ++ -- -- +---------++---------++---------+ AC DC


The working principle of a full wave rectifier project for class 12 is as follows:


  • The transformer steps down the 220 V AC input to 12 V AC output.



  • The four diodes are connected in a bridge configuration to form a full wave rectifier. The diodes allow current to flow in one direction only, depending on the polarity of the AC input.



  • During the positive half cycle of the AC input, diodes D1 and D4 are forward biased and diodes D2 and D3 are reverse biased. The current flows from the transformer through D1, R, C, D4, and back to the transformer. The output voltage across R is positive and equal to the peak value of the AC input minus the voltage drop across the diodes.



  • During the negative half cycle of the AC input, diodes D2 and D3 are forward biased and diodes D1 and D4 are reverse biased. The current flows from the transformer through D2, R, C, D3, and back to the transformer. The output voltage across R is positive and equal to the peak value of the AC input minus the voltage drop across the diodes.



  • The output voltage across R is therefore always positive and has a frequency of twice that of the AC input. This is called full wave rectification.



  • The capacitor C acts as a filter to smooth out the ripples in the output voltage. It charges during each half cycle and discharges during the gaps between them. The larger the value of C, the smoother the output voltage.



  • The voltmeter and ammeter are used to measure the output voltage and current respectively. The output voltage should be around 12 V DC and the output current should be proportional to the load resistance R.



Precautions and Observations of the Project




While making and testing a full wave rectifier project for class 12, you should take some precautions and make some observations:


  • Make sure that the connections are tight and correct according to the circuit diagram.



  • Use a suitable transformer with a secondary voltage of 12 V or less. Do not use a higher voltage as it may damage the diodes or other components.



  • Use diodes of type 1N4007 or equivalent. Do not use LEDs or other types of diodes as they may have different characteristics or ratings.



  • Use a resistor of 1 kΩ or higher. Do not use a lower resistance as it may cause excessive current or heat dissipation.



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