Marine Biology Leviton Pdf Download __EXCLUSIVE__
the pacific coast of north america has historically been a source of many marine nis. recent decades have seen a substantial increase in nis listings in the marine environment of the united states [ 187 ]. for example, in the pacific northwest, the alien crab macropipus micropthalmus is now the most frequently reported invader [ 193 ], and the alien mussel mytilus trossulus has become one of the most widespread nis along the pacific coast, with the potential to transform coastal ecosystems [ 193 ]. the pacific northwest region of north america is also the most densely populated area of the world with the greatest human impact on the environment. many of these invasive species are excellent vectors, with the movement of biological propagules out of marine habitats in ballast water. recently, the large new international port of long beach, california, has been described as a secondary hotspot for marine nis, due to the high volume of international traffic through the port [ 194 ]. the potential for the spread of nis by such vectors is of particular concern for marine bioinvasions. for example, the alien australian smelt macruronus novaezelandiae has been found in the bay of bengal and the indian ocean, and is now a major freshwater invader in many parts of the world, including australia [ 195 ].
marine biology leviton pdf download
australia has been the subject of many biological invasions; indeed, the country is considered the second biological hot spot of the world after the new world tropics [ 196 ]. the frequency of invasions in australia is related to the high quality of habitat for both terrestrial and marine species, and to a geographic region of high human impact. nevertheless, australia has had a relatively low rate of nis entries in the wrims [ 197 ]. the australian continent has an extraordinary range of habitats and environments, and the species that have arrived in australia are highly diverse. although alien plant species are the dominant invaders, there is growing concern about the introduction of nis, such as the australian smelt and the redback spider [ 195 ].